Data Manipulation – IT Talk http://it-talk.org/ Fri, 01 Jul 2022 01:02:12 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://it-talk.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-3-150x150.png Data Manipulation – IT Talk http://it-talk.org/ 32 32 Adversarial Machine Learning Is a New National Security Threat https://it-talk.org/adversarial-machine-learning-is-a-new-national-security-threat/ Fri, 01 Jul 2022 01:02:12 +0000 https://it-talk.org/adversarial-machine-learning-is-a-new-national-security-threat/ Imagine the following scenarios: An explosive device, an enemy fighter jet and a group of rebels are mistaken for a cardboard box, an eagle or a flock of sheep. A lethal autonomous weapons system misidentifies friendly combat vehicles as enemy combat vehicles. Satellite images of a group of students in a schoolyard are misinterpreted as […]]]>

Imagine the following scenarios: An explosive device, an enemy fighter jet and a group of rebels are mistaken for a cardboard box, an eagle or a flock of sheep. A lethal autonomous weapons system misidentifies friendly combat vehicles as enemy combat vehicles. Satellite images of a group of students in a schoolyard are misinterpreted as moving tanks. In each of these situations, the consequences of action are extremely frightening. This is the heart of the emerging field of adversarial machine learning.

Rapid advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning techniques have fostered the wide spread of artificial intelligence (AI)-based applications. The ability to analyze different types of images and data from heterogeneous sensors makes this technology particularly interesting for military and defense applications. However, these machine learning (ML) techniques were not designed to compete with smart adversaries; therefore, their own characteristics that make them so attractive also represent their greatest risk in this class of applications. Specifically, a small disturbance to the input data is enough to compromise the accuracy of ML algorithms and make them vulnerable to manipulation by adversaries, hence the term adversarial machine learning.

Adversarial attacks pose a tangible threat to the stability and security of AI and robotic technologies. The exact conditions of such attacks are generally quite unintuitive to humans, so it is difficult to predict when and where attacks might occur. And even if one could estimate the probability of an adversary attack, the exact response of the AI ​​system can be difficult to predict, leading to new surprises and less stable and less secure military engagements and interactions. Despite this inherent weakness, the subject of adversarial ML in the military industry has remained underestimated. The argument to be made here is that ML must be inherently more robust to make good use of it in scenarios with intelligent and adaptive adversaries.

AI is a growing field of technology with potentially significant implications for national security. Thus, the United States and other countries are developing AI applications for a range of military functions. AI research is underway in intelligence collection and analysis, logistics, cyber operations, information operations, command and control, and in a variety of semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles. Already, AI has been integrated into military operations in Iraq and Syria. AI technologies present unique challenges for military integration, particularly because most AI development occurs in the commercial sector. While AI is not unique in this regard, the defense acquisition process may need to be adapted to acquire emerging technologies like AI. Additionally, many commercial AI applications need to undergo significant modifications before they are functional for the military.

For a long time, the only goal of ML researchers was to improve the performance of ML systems (true positive rate, accuracy, etc.). Today, the robustness of these systems can no longer be ignored; many of them are very vulnerable to intentional enemy attacks. This fact makes them unsuitable for real-world applications, especially mission-critical ones.

A contradictory example is an entry in an ML model that an attacker has intentionally crafted to cause the model to fail. In general, the attacker may not have access to the architecture of the ML system, which is called a black box attack. Attackers can approximate a white-box attack by using the notion of “portability”, which means that an input designed to confuse a certain ML model is capable of triggering similar behavior in a different model. This has been demonstrated time and time again by a team of researchers from U.S. Army Cybernetics Institute.

General concerns about the impacts of adversarial behavior on stability, whether in isolation or through interaction, have been underscored by recent demonstrations of attacks against these systems. Perhaps the most widely discussed attack cases involve image classification algorithms that are tricked into “seeing” images in noise or are easily fooled by pixel-level changes so that they classify a school bus like an ostrich, for example. Similarly, game systems that outperform any human (e.g. Chess or AlphaGo) can suddenly fail if the structure or rules of the game are changed slightly in a way that would not affect a human. Self-driving vehicles that perform reasonably well under ordinary conditions can, with the application of a few pieces of tape, be caused to swerve into the wrong lane or accelerate through a stop sign. This list of contradictory attacks is by no means exhaustive and continues to grow over time.

While AI has the potential to confer a number of advantages in the military context, it can also present distinct challenges. AI technology could, for example, facilitate autonomous operations, lead to more informed military decision-making, and increase the speed and scale of military action. However, it can also be unpredictable or vulnerable to unique forms of manipulation. Due to these factors, analysts have a wide range of opinions on the influence of AI on future combat operations. While a few analysts believe the technology will have minimal impact, most believe AI will have at least an evolutionary, if not revolutionary, effect.

US military forces use AI and ML to improve and streamline military operations and other national security initiatives. In terms of intelligence gathering, artificial intelligence technologies have already been incorporated into military operations in Iraq and Syria, where computer vision algorithms have been used to detect people and objects of interest. Military logistics is another area of ​​interest in this field. The US Air Force uses AI to know when its planes need maintenance, and the US Army uses IBM’s “Watson” AI software for predictive maintenance and dispatch request analysis. AI defense applications also extend to semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles, including fighter jets, drones or unmanned aerial vehicles, ground vehicles and ships.

One would hope that adversarial attacks would be relatively rare in the everyday world since the “random noise” that targets image classification algorithms is actually far from random.

Unfortunately, this reliance is almost certainly unwarranted for defense or security technologies. These systems will invariably be deployed in contexts where the other side has the time, energy, and ability to develop and construct exactly these types of adversarial attacks. Artificial intelligence and robotic technologies are particularly attractive for deployment in enemy-controlled or contested areas, as these environments are the riskiest for human soldiers, largely because the other side has the most environmental control.

To illustrate, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) tricked an image classifier into thinking the machine guns were a helicopter. If ever a weapons system equipped with computer vision were trained to respond to certain machine guns with neutralization, this misidentification could cause unwanted passivity, creating a potentially fatal vulnerability in the computer’s ML algorithm. The scenario could also be reversed, in which the computer incorrectly identifies a helicopter as a machine gun. On the other hand, knowing that an AI spam filter tracks certain words, phrases and word counts to exclude them, attackers can manipulate the algorithm by using acceptable words, phrases and word counts and thus gain access to the a recipient’s inbox, further increasing the likelihood of cyberattacks via email.

In summary, AI-enabled systems can fail due to adversarial attacks intentionally designed to trick or trick the algorithms into making a mistake. These examples demonstrate that even simple systems can be tricked in unexpected ways and sometimes with potentially serious consequences. With the wide range of conflicting learning applications in cybersecurity, from malware detection to speaker recognition to cyber-physical systems and many more such as deep fakes, networking generative, etc., it’s time this issue took center stage as the US Department of Defense increases its funding and deployment in the areas of automation, artificial intelligence, and autonomous agents. There must be a high level of awareness about the robustness of these systems before deploying them in critical instances.

Many recommendations have been offered to mitigate the dangerous effects of adversarial machine learning in military contexts. Keeping humans informed or informed is essential in such situations. When there is a human-AI team, people can recognize that an adversarial attack has occurred and guide the system to the appropriate behaviors. Another technical suggestion is adversarial training, which involves feeding an ML algorithm with a set of potential perturbations. In the case of computer vision algorithms, this would include images of the stop sign which displays these strategically placed stickers or school buses which include these slight image alterations. In this way, the algorithm can always correctly identify phenomena in its environment despite the manipulations of an attacker.

Since ML in general, and adversarial ML in particular, are still relatively new phenomena, research on both is still emerging. As new attack techniques and defensive countermeasures are implemented, US military forces must exercise caution when using new AI systems in critical operations. While other countries, especially China and Russia, are investing heavily in AI for military purposes, including in applications that raise questions about international standards and human rights, there are still the utmost importance for the United States to maintain a strategic position to prevail in the future. battlefield.

Dr. Elie Alhajjar is a senior researcher at the Army Cyber ​​Institute and an associate professor in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York, where he teaches and mentors cadets from all disciplines academics. His work is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, National Security Agency, and Army Research Laboratory, and he was recently named a Dean’s Fellow for Research.

]]>
A Numbers Game: How UNM Moved to Title IX Compliance https://it-talk.org/a-numbers-game-how-unm-moved-to-title-ix-compliance/ Sun, 26 Jun 2022 01:28:53 +0000 https://it-talk.org/a-numbers-game-how-unm-moved-to-title-ix-compliance/ Fifty years ago this month, Title IX changed the course for gender equity in education. And while the past week has highlighted the pioneers and advancements celebrated over the past half-century thanks in large part to landmark legislation, there are also constant reminders that there is still a long way to go before There is […]]]>

Fifty years ago this month, Title IX changed the course for gender equity in education.

And while the past week has highlighted the pioneers and advancements celebrated over the past half-century thanks in large part to landmark legislation, there are also constant reminders that there is still a long way to go before There is real gender equity in college athletics.

As part of the continuation of the Journal’s Title IX series, we wanted to narrow the focus and examine not how far UNM has come in terms of gender equity in athletics since 1972. But it is also needed to see how it has moved toward fair gender equity compliance in the past four years since the release of a 38-page Title IX assessment report that shed light on a athletic department that failed to provide its female athletes with the same opportunities as their male counterparts.

UNM’s Amelia Mazza-Downie wins the Mountain West Individual Cross Country Championship on Oct. 29, 2021. (Mike Sandoval/For the Albuquerque Journal)

“We are committed to fairness and have been concerned for many months that our athletics program does not comply with federal law,” UNM President Garnett Stokes and Athletic Director Eddie Nuñez co-wrote. in a letter to the campus community on May 18, 2018, when the report was made public.

“…Understanding Title IX compliance can be complicated, but it is clear from the independent review that the University is not meeting federal guidelines.”

MORE COVERAGE: Estes was the linchpin of UNM’s reach for sports equality

Many concerns have been highlighted in a report that some have criticized as designed to justify the impending sports cuts that came later this summer.

But nothing was more glaring than the disparity in participation between male and female athletes.

Title IX requires a school to provide women with opportunities in athletics at a rate “substantially proportional” to the male-to-female ratio of the general student body.

For the 2016-2017 academic year—the one noted in the Title IX evaluation report—women made up 55.4 percent of UNM’s undergraduate enrollment, but only 43.8 percent of track and field participants. And they represented overall 70 participation places less than their male counterparts. (Opportunities for participation include practice players and athletes with partial scholarships.)

Four years after the report was released and five academic years of data reporting later, women accounted for 53.8% of UNM athletic opportunities in 2021-22. This is thanks to a combination of roster management which has seen the size of some men’s sports rosters reduced and some women’s increased and the removal of sports like men’s football.

In UNM’s latest Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA) report filed with the Department of Education, the Lobos reported 281 female participants versus 241 males.

Spending is still heavily skewed towards men’s sports at UNM – something common for any university that has a football team. But due to the improved number of participants, UNM is now considered Title IX compliant.

“We want to make sure that no matter what sport you’re in, you’ll get everything we can offer – from academics, to the (financial) help you can get per sport, to extra mental health help. or nutrition or whatever we can do,” Nuñez said. “I want it to be as fair as possible between male and female student-athletes. … Are the numbers as perfect as they need to be No. But we are working on it.

What do the numbers mean

As part of his deep-dive into what he called “the widespread use of roster manipulation” among 107 public universities that compete at the Football Bowl subdivision level, including UNM and the State of New Mexico, USA Today found that “the vast majority” of schools were inflating the numbers. female athletes practicing sports.

According to USA Today’s analysis, such examples of significant list manipulation during EADA’s 2018-2019 reporting year included:

n The University of Wisconsin reported having 165 athletes on its women’s rowing roster and Alabama reported 122, most of whom have never competed;

n The University of Michigan had 29 men who practiced at various times during the season with its women’s basketball team for the number of female appearances. (The Wolverines only had 14 scholarship players that season that counted towards the total number of appearances.)

n The University of Hawaii earned a total of 78 spots on the women’s roster by counting the same athlete two or three times in multiple sports, such as a distance runner who runs cross country, indoor track and field. three-team outdoor athletics. spots as they are considered by the NCAA to be three unique sports.

But while the above examples certainly seem to go against the spirit of Title IX, they are not illegal. In fact, all statements of numbers are how the DOE asks universities to complete their EADA reports.

USA Today reported that UNM and NMSU added more than 50 spots in their EADA reports for 2018-2019, largely on double and triple counting of athletes competing in cross country, indoor track and outer track.

“If they legitimately play two sports, we count them twice, per EADA reporting rules,” said Amy Beggin, UNM’s chief compliance officer and acting chief administrator. “We have (male athletes) in football and track, then some (athletes) who run cross country are also counted in indoor track and outdoor track if they also compete in both.”

Sport-related financial assistance

In 2016-17, male UNM athletes received 62.6% ($4.74 million) in sport-related financial assistance, compared to 37% ($2.83 million) for female athletes.

In 2020-21, male athletes received 58.3% ($4.72 million) versus 41.7% ($3.37 million) for female athletes.

There remains a big gap – a gap that is hard to close when one sport (football) has 85 full scholarship players and no women’s sport has even a fifth of that number of scholarships or equivalents to distribute. But Nuñez points out that progress continues to be made so that participants get at least the maximum possible use of the number of scholarships the NCAA allows them to have, depending on their sport.

“One of the things that we heard around the time I got here, and it was in this report (2018 stock IX valuation), is that we need to make sure we’re maximizing every exchange we have,” Nuñez said. . “So if a team has eight scholarships (donating is allowed), we don’t tell them, ‘Hey, you can only have six.’ At some point here, for some reason, I don’t think we’re maximizing scholarships.

“Now we’re making sure that every student-athlete gets everything we can give them from their experience as Lobo.”

]]>
FTC warns against using AI to fight online harm https://it-talk.org/ftc-warns-against-using-ai-to-fight-online-harm/ Wed, 22 Jun 2022 08:10:21 +0000 https://it-talk.org/ftc-warns-against-using-ai-to-fight-online-harm/ During its last public meeting, the Federal Trade Commission presented and voted 4-1 to issue a report to Congress warning against the use of artificial intelligence to combat various online harms and urging policy makers to “exercise a high degree of caution” in imposing or relying too heavily on these tools. According to the FTC, […]]]>

During its last public meeting, the Federal Trade Commission presented and voted 4-1 to issue a report to Congress warning against the use of artificial intelligence to combat various online harms and urging policy makers to “exercise a high degree of caution” in imposing or relying too heavily on these tools.

According to the FTC, as the deployment of AI tools intended to detect or address harmful online content accelerates, “it is crucial to understand that these tools remain largely rudimentary, have substantial limitations, and may never be appropriate in some cases as an alternative to human judgment.Reflecting the importance of the topic, in November 2021, FTC Chairman Lina M. Khan announcement that the agency had hired its very first AI advisors.

As a backdrop, in the Appropriations Act of 2021, Congress directed the Commission to consider how AI “may be used to identify, remove, or take any other appropriate action necessary to address” a wide variety of ” online harms” specified, including online fraud, impersonation scams, fake reviews and accounts, bots, media manipulation, illegal drug sales and other illegal activities, sexual exploitation, hate crimes, online harassment and cyberbullying, and disinformation campaigns aimed at influencing elections. Before discussing each harm listed by Congress, the FTC noted that only a few fell within its scope of consumer protection and indicated a preference for deferring to other government agencies on the subjects for which they are more engaged and better informed.

Ultimately, the FTC report cautions against reliance on AI as a policy solution and notes that its widespread adoption could introduce a range of additional harms, including:

  • Inaccurate results. According to the FTC, the detection capabilities of AI tools regarding online harm are significantly limited by inherent flaws in their design, such as unrepresentative datasets, misclassifications, inability to identify new phenomena (e.g. misinformation about COVID-19), and lack of context and meaning.
  • Bias and discrimination. The FTC report found that AI tools can reflect the biases of their developers that can lead to unfair results and discrimination against protected classes of people.
  • Invasive monitoring. AI tools can incentivize and enable invasive commercial surveillance and data mining practices, as they require the development, training, and use of large amounts of data.

Although Congress tasked the FTC with recommending legislation that could advance the use of AI to combat online harm, the report instead urged lawmakers to consider focusing on crafting legal frameworks. which would ensure that the AI ​​tools do not cause further damage.

Among other key considerations, the FTC report indicates that human intervention is still necessary in the context of monitoring the use and decisions of AI tools; The use of AI must be genuinely transparent, especially when people’s rights or personal data are at stake; platforms that rely on AI tools must be accountable for both their data practices and their results; and data scientists and their employers building AI tools should strive to hire and retain diverse teams to help reduce inadvertent bias or discrimination. According to the FTC, “[p]Leaving aside laws or regulations that would require more fundamental changes to platforms’ business models, the most valuable direction in this area – at least initially – might be in the area of ​​transparency and responsibility”, which are “crucial in determining the best prices for new public and private actions.

Chairman Kahn and Commissioners Slaughter, Bedoya and Wilson voted to send the report to Congress, issue separate statements. Commissioner Phillips issued a dissenting statement“generally agree[ing] with the main conclusion “, but expressing concern that the report does not sufficiently address the benefits and costs of using AI to combat online harm as intended.

“[I]It is crucial to understand that these tools remain largely rudimentary, have substantial limitations, and may never be appropriate in some cases as an alternative to human judgment.

]]>
How the agricultural census can strengthen food security | The Guardian Nigeria News https://it-talk.org/how-the-agricultural-census-can-strengthen-food-security-the-guardian-nigeria-news/ Sun, 19 Jun 2022 04:05:00 +0000 https://it-talk.org/how-the-agricultural-census-can-strengthen-food-security-the-guardian-nigeria-news/ Unless policy formulation and implementation in agriculture is data-driven, Nigeria’s quest for food security could remain elusive. Indeed, experts have insisted that the implementation of the National Agricultural Sample Census (NASC) aimed at capturing agricultural households for proper planning is vital in this regard. The agricultural census is an integrated system of agricultural statistics whose […]]]>

Unless policy formulation and implementation in agriculture is data-driven, Nigeria’s quest for food security could remain elusive.

Indeed, experts have insisted that the implementation of the National Agricultural Sample Census (NASC) aimed at capturing agricultural households for proper planning is vital in this regard.

The agricultural census is an integrated system of agricultural statistics whose objective is to provide primary data on the structure of the sector, such as the size of holdings, land tenure and others, which do not change rapidly over time.

According to the recommendation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the sample census is supposed to be carried out every 10 years, to help the government monitor the evolution of the agricultural sector, but the reports say it was last performed 29 years ago.

Nigeria conducted the last round of agricultural census in 1993/94. Since then, the agricultural data situation in the country has receded and can be described as weak.

According to reports, there has been a lack of intercensal surveys to update the census, hence the need to address the country’s fragile agricultural situation.

Experts say the NACS would provide farmers with the opportunity to be listed based on the crops they grow and their livestock. But despite the benefits, the country failed to complete the exercise to completion, mainly due to lack of funds.

The General Manager of Green Sahara Farms, Suleiman Dikwa, underlined the importance of the sample census; say without accurate data, there can never be good planning.

He said if the Federal Government is sincere, the sample census would address the challenges facing the sector, lamenting that, as is the case in Nigeria, the operators of the interventions are the architects of the manipulation of the system. .

“A resident community-based approach, which collects information and intervenes at the community level, is the solution rather than a third-party approach for agricultural and other interventions.

“Interventions should help gain access for farmers to remove products from the shelves at the community level, in the same way a farmer purchases other goods and services. The system as it exists is too sophisticated for the rural farmer or the small holder.

The Deputy Director/Head of Agri-Statistics Division, National Bureau of Statistics, Abuja, Bishop Ohioma explained that data collection is having an effect in Nigeria’s quest to achieve food self-sufficiency.

He revealed that there are plans to conduct the NASC in all local councils soon, adding that the train-the-trainer exercise is expected to start this month for a period of 60 days, to screen farming households.

“The other is the National Agricultural Sample Survey (NASS), and it is supposed to be annual. The census is supposed to take place every 10 years as recommended by the FAO, the last time it was fact, it was about 28 or 29 years ago. It’s because of the funds. So immediately after the NASC, we will start with the NASS, which was done eight years ago. We will select the farmers to from the list that we will obtain during the census.

Ohioma revealed that the northern part of Nigeria is always willing to provide information when collecting data, adding that the statistics have a ripple effect in the country’s quest to achieve food self-sufficiency.

“We will also be reviewing the food safety situation in all local state councils and should be able to make recommendations to the government. You know that the government is concerned about the food security situation.

“The statistics are an estimate, it is very easy for us to collect data from the North than from the South. NASC and NASS will enhance food security; the problem we have in Nigeria for policy-making is the data problem,” he said.

Green Sahara Farms CEO Dikwa, however, warned that the exercise may not achieve its objective if the right modalities are not adopted.

He said, “On the other hand, the issue is not the census, but the modality deployed to collect the information.

“If the census is carried out and the same actors who compromise the system are hired to collect the information, then the goal is defeated. The general census will take place next year and I assume that the profession will be one of the information required and therefore can serve the same purpose.

]]>
Stabilization of magnetic skyrmions in tight nanowires https://it-talk.org/stabilization-of-magnetic-skyrmions-in-tight-nanowires/ Thu, 16 Jun 2022 20:50:11 +0000 https://it-talk.org/stabilization-of-magnetic-skyrmions-in-tight-nanowires/ Yamaguchi, A. et al. Real-space observation of current-induced domain wall motion in submicron magnetic wires. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92077205 (2004). ADS CASE PubMed Article Google Scholar Allwood, DA et al. Magnetic domain wall logic. Science 3091688 (2005). ADS CASE PubMed Article Google Scholar Kläui, M., Ehrke, H. & Rüdiger, U. Direct observation of domain wall […]]]>
  • Yamaguchi, A. et al. Real-space observation of current-induced domain wall motion in submicron magnetic wires. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92077205 (2004).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Allwood, DA et al. Magnetic domain wall logic. Science 3091688 (2005).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Kläui, M., Ehrke, H. & Rüdiger, U. Direct observation of domain wall pinning at nanoscale constrictions. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87102509 (2005).

    ADS
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Beach, GSD, Nistor, C., Knutson, C., Tsoi, M. & Erskine, JL Dynamics of field-driven domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanowires. Nature Mater. 4741 (2005).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Parkin, SSP, Hayashi, M. & Thomas, L. Magnetic domain-walled running track memory. Science 320190 (2008).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • O’Brien, L. et al. Bidirectional magnetic nanowire shift register. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95232502 (2009).

    ADS
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Lahtinen, THE, Franke, KJA & van Dijken, S. Electric field control of magnetic domain wall motion and local magnetization inversion. Science. representing 2258 (2012).

    PubMed
    PubMed Center
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Tanigawa, H. et al. Thickness dependence of current-induced domain wall motion in a Co/Ni multilayer with out-of-plane anisotropy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102152410 (2013).

    ADS
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Sbiaa, R. & Piramanayagam, SN Multilevel domain wall memory in tight magnetic nanowires. Appl. Phys. A 1141347 (2014).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Jungwirth, T., Marti, X., Wadley, P. & Wunderlich, J. Antiferromagnetic spintronics. Nat. Nanotechnology. 11231-241 (2016).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Kim, K.-J. et al. Fast domain wall motion near the angular momentum compensation temperature of ferrimagnetics. Nat. Mater. 161187 (2017).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Al Bahri, M. et al. Staggered magnetic nanowire devices for efficient domain wall pinning in racetrack memory. Phys. Rev. Appl. 11024023 (2019).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Kim, YU, Kwon, J., Hwang, HK, Purnama, I. & You, CY Abnormal multi-level Hall resistance in a single Hall cross for neuromorphic device applications. Science. representing ten1285 (2020).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    PubMed Center
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Muhlbauer, S. et al. Skyrmion Lattice in a chiral magnet. Science 323915 (2009).

    ADS
    PubMed
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Rößler, UK, Bogdanov, AN & Pfleiderer, C. Spontaneous skyrmion ground states in magnetic metals. Nature 442797 (2006).

    ADS
    PubMed
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Jonietz, F. et al. Spin transfer couples in MnSi at ultra-low current densities. Science 3301648–1651 (2010).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Romming, N. et al. Writing and deleting unique magnetic skyrmions. Science 341636–639 (2013).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Sampaio, J., Cros, V., Rohart, S., Thiaville, A. & Fert, A. Nucleation, stability, and current-induced motion of isolated magnetic skyrmions in nanostructures. Nat. Nanotechnology. 8839 (2013).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Wooo, S. et al. Observation of magnetic skyrmions at room temperature and their current-induced dynamics in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets. Nat. Mater. 15501-506 (2016).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Ding, J., Yang, X. & Zhu, T. Manipulation of the current-induced motion of magnetic skyrmions in the magnetic nanotrack. J.Phys. D 48115004 (2015).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Fert, A., Reyren, N. & Cros, V. Magnetic Skyrmions: Advances in Physics and Potential Applications. Nat. Rev. Mater. 217031 (2017).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Prychinenko, D. et al. Magnetic skyrmion as a nonlinear resistive element: a potential building block for reservoir computing. Phys. Rev. Appl. 9014034 (2018).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Zazvorka, J. et al. Skyrmion thermal diffusion used in a redistribution device. Nat. Nanotechnology. 14658 (2019).

    ADS
    PubMed
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Casiragui, A. et al. Individual manipulation of skyrmions by local magnetic field gradients. Common. Phys. 2145 (2019).

    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Yokouchi, T. et al. Creation of magnetic skyrmions by surface acoustic waves. Nat. Nanotechnology. 15361 (2020).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Sbiaa, R. Multi-state magnetic domain wall devices for neuromorphic computing. Phys. Solidi-RRL Statistics 152100125 (2021).

    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Wang, X. et al. Manipulation of the density of magnetic skyrmions by multilayer repetition and thermal annealing. Phys. Rev. B 104064421 (2021).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Moriya, T. Anisotropic superexchange interaction and weak ferromagnetism. Phys. Round. 12091–98 (1960).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Dzyaloshinskii, IE Theory of helical structures in antiferromagnets. Sov. Phys. JETP 19960–971 (1964).

    Google Scholar

  • Sues, D. et al. Spinning torque efficiency and analytical error rate estimates from skyrmion’s racing memory. Science. representing 94827 (2019).

    ADS
    PubMed
    PubMed Center
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Vansteenkiste, A. et al. The design and verification of MuMax3. AIP Adv. 4107133 (2014).

    ADS
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Chui, CP, Ma, F. & Zhou, Y. Geometric and physical conditions for skyrmion stability in a nanowire. AIP Adv. 5047141 (2015).

    ADS
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Deger, C., Yavuz, I. & Yildiz, F. Coherent current-driven skyrmion generation. Science. representing 93513 (2019).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    PubMed Center
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Chen, R., Li, Y., Pavlidis, VF & Moutafis, C. Skyrmionic Interconnect Device. Phys. Rev. Res. 2043312 (2020).

    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Sbia, R. et al. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements of multilayers (Co/Ni/Co/Pt) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. J.Phys. D 49425002 (2016).

    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Thiaville, A., Nakatani, Y., Miltat, J., and Suzuki, Y. Micromagnetic understanding of current-induced domain wall motion in patterned nanowires. Europhys. Lett. 69990 (2005).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Kandukuri, S., Murthy, VSN, and Thiruvikraman, PK Creation of isolated skyrmion lattices, skyrmion lattices and antiskyrmions by magnetization inversion in the Co/Pd nanostructure. Science. representing 1118945 (2021).

    ADS
    CASE
    PubMed
    PubMed Center
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Masell, J. & Karin, Everschor-Sitte K. Current-induced dynamics of chiral magnetic structures: creation, movement and applications. In Chirality, Magnetism and Magnetoelectricity. Topics in Applied Physics Flight. 138 (ed. Kamenetskii, E.) (Springer, 2021).

    Google Scholar

  • Zhang, X., Xia, J., Zhao, GP, Liu, X. & Zhou, Y. Magnetic skyrmion transport in a nanotrack with spatially variable damping and non-adiabatic torque. IEEE Trans. Mag. 531–6 (2016).

    ADS

    Google Scholar

  • Morshed, MG, Vakili, H. & Ghosh, AW Positional stability of Skyrmions in racetrack memory with notched geometry. arXiv preprint arXiv:2110.13445.

  • Wang, Z. et al. Generation and Hall effect of activated skyrmions using non-magnetic point contacts. Phys. Rev. B 100184426 (2019).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Sbiaa, R. & Al Bahri, M. Tight nanowire with stabilized magnetic domain wall. J. Magn. Mag. Carpet. 411113 (2016).

    ADS
    CASE
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Rohart, S. & Thiaville, A. Confinement of Skyrmion in ultra-thin film nanostructures in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Phys. Rev. B 88184422 (2013).

    ADS
    Article
    CASE

    Google Scholar

  • Wang, XS, Yuan, HY & Wang, XR A theory on the size of skyrmions. Common. Phys. 131 (2018).

    Article

    Google Scholar

  • Zhang, X. et al. Fully magnetic control of skyrmions in nanowires by a spin wave. Nanotechnology 26225701 (2015).

    ADS
    PubMed
    Article

    Google Scholar

  • ]]>
    Spring Boot 2.7.0 released with support for GraphQL, Podman and Cache2k https://it-talk.org/spring-boot-2-7-0-released-with-support-for-graphql-podman-and-cache2k/ Mon, 13 Jun 2022 05:45:21 +0000 https://it-talk.org/spring-boot-2-7-0-released-with-support-for-graphql-podman-and-cache2k/ VMware has published Spring Boot 2.7.0, the latest and final branch of the 2.x series. Spring Boot 3.0, scheduled for November 2022, will be the next release. This latest version of Spring Boot includes Spring support for GraphQL 1.0; support for Podman container engine as an alternative to Docker Engine when creating images using Cloud-native […]]]>

    VMware has published Spring Boot 2.7.0, the latest and final branch of the 2.x series. Spring Boot 3.0, scheduled for November 2022, will be the next release.

    This latest version of Spring Boot includes Spring support for GraphQL 1.0; support for Podman container engine as an alternative to Docker Engine when creating images using Cloud-native buildpacks; dependency management and auto-configuration for Cache2k; and new test annotations for Elastic Search and CouchBase.

    Moreover, the JavaInfoContributor and OsInfoContributor Classes have been improved and can now expose more information about the Java version, vendor, and underlying operating system, respectively, under the Info endpoint.

    If a project contains custom autoconfigurations, the record must be moved from spring.plants in a new file named META-INF/spring/org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfiguration.imports.

    A new @AutoConfiguration the annotation was introduced. It should be used to annotate the top level auto-configuration classes listed in the new file referenced above.

    Spring Boot 2.7 upgrades to new versions of different Spring projects such as Spring 2021.2 data and Spring Safety 5.7. Also, many third-party dependencies have been updated, such as Infinispan 13, Micrometer 1.9Elastic Search 7.17, H2 2.1 and Flyway 8.5.

    Spring for GraphQL allows clients and servers to be configured using the new Spring Boot starter and annotations for this open source query and data manipulation language for APIs. Further details can be found in this detailed news item from InfoQ.

    Spring Boot 2.x was first released in 2018 and thanks to easy deployment, minimal configuration, and its ability to adapt to different use cases, it has grown in popularity year after year. It is now the most popular framework on Java according to the recent JRebel survey.

    Spring Boot 2.5 has reached the end of its OSS support period, but commercial support is still available until August 2023.

    Based on Spring Framework 6.0, Spring Boot 3.0 will be the next major revision and will require Java 17 or higher. It will also mark the first release of Spring Boot that uses the Jakarta EE 9 APIs (jakarta.* namespace) instead of the old Java EE 8 APIs (javax.* namespace). This is a radical change since all libraries used in a project must be compatible with the new variant. Spring suggests phased migration (ex. 2.5 >> 2.6 >> 2.7), so it is recommended to upgrade to 2.7 before migrating to 3.0.

    Spring Boot 3.0 will also support AOT (ahead-of-time) compilation and native executables through spring native.

    ]]>
    S&P 500 or EURUSD: which will break first? https://it-talk.org/sp-500-or-eurusd-which-will-break-first/ Thu, 09 Jun 2022 02:53:02 +0000 https://it-talk.org/sp-500-or-eurusd-which-will-break-first/ S&P 500, USDJPY, EURUSD, Growth Forecasts and Rate Rising Talking Points The business perspective: S&P 500 bearish below 4,075; EURUSD bullish above 1.0800; USDJPY bearish below 132.00 The S&P 500 extended a tightly constrained 100-point range for an eighth session while the EURUSD held within a 150-pip range for 11 days While the ECB’s rate […]]]>

    S&P 500, USDJPY, EURUSD, Growth Forecasts and Rate Rising Talking Points

    • The business perspective: S&P 500 bearish below 4,075; EURUSD bullish above 1.0800; USDJPY bearish below 132.00
    • The S&P 500 extended a tightly constrained 100-point range for an eighth session while the EURUSD held within a 150-pip range for 11 days
    • While the ECB’s rate decision is a very explicit catalyst ahead, don’t underestimate the impact of growth and general monetary policy downgrades for the S&P 500

    {{GUIDE| BUILDING_CONFIDENCE_IN_TRADING}}

    On risk trends

    “Markets can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.” This adaptation of the saying of John Maynard Keynes strikes me as perfectly applicable to the conditions we face with the S&P 500 – and by large “risky” assets in general. I tracked the remarkable constraints of the US equity benchmark every day; and with Wednesday’s close, the tally has reached eight consecutive trading sessions in which the world’s most liquid currency pair has held within an exceptionally tight 100-point range. The last time we saw the market so quiet was until January 4e which were commercial holiday terms. Our circumstances are very different today than they were then. Prior to this benchmark, we had experienced various periods of market fatigue throughout 2021, but conditions are now very different than they were in this supply of complacency-driven risk exposure. Between extreme inflation, aggressive rate forecasts and a gradual shift in rate forecasts; consistency in the most speculative risk measures seems more than suspect.

    Chart of the S&P 500 with 50-day SMA, 7-day ATR and 7-day historical range (Daily)

    Chart created on Tradingview platform

    As far as “risk assets” go, the S&P 500 – and US indices more broadly – ​​are what I consider to be the most resilient speculative group in general. Over the long term (ie over the past 10 years), US equities have significantly outperformed in the post-Great Financial Crisis era. However, if we shorten that timeframe significantly, it wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say that the yen crosses outpace all major “risk” categories. All major yen crosses have jumped over the past month – even CHFJPY – but high yield pairs have benefited from some of the biggest moves. While GBPJPY and NZDJPY are worth evaluating, USDJPY is in a class of its own. The 1.2% rally in this second most liquid pair is the biggest one-day rally in six weeks. More than that, the charge extends an 8-day rally that is only comparable to the post-pandemic or US election period. In other words, it’s extreme. Speaking of extremes, we are within 100 pips of the swing high set in January 2002, which will register on the radars of even technical agnostics. It’s a pair to watch around its highs, but its real capacity for movement comes in case appetite might crash again.

    USDJPY chart with 50 and 200 day SMA, 7 day rate of change (daily)

    S&P 500 or EURUSD: which will break first?

    Chart created on Tradingview platform

    Monetary policy is back on the menu

    While the S&P 500 is unique in its reflection of the market squeeze for a multitude of reasons, it is by no means alone when it comes to the potential for a significant breakout. Another financial system benchmark, the EURUSD pushes the statistical extremes and has a more muted fundamental spark that has the ability to pull the market out of its oppressive range. Looking at the chart, the benchmark Forex cross has been swinging between 1.0800 and 1.0635 over the past 11 trading days. It is as narrow a corridor as we have seen from this landmark as we have seen from the very beginning of the year. Unlike the US index, there is a very specific event risk that we can flag that is likely to generate volatility for the euro; the ECB’s rate decision. While no changes are expected at this particular meeting, speculation of a rise in July and September is virtually entrenched. If this resilient dove gives way to inflationary pressures, it could reverse monetary policy from complacency-based risk appetite. If they hold out, it could quickly undermine the euro’s rally last month.

    EURUSD chart with 20 and 100 day SMA, 11 day historical range (daily)

    S&P 500 or EURUSD: which will break first?

    Chart created on Tradingview platform

    Speaking of monetary policy in a more general perspective, it is important to put the ECB in context. There are really only three major central banks that are holding back their fight against inflation to “officially” support growth, although there is good reason to suspect that currency manipulation is on the cards. Dismissing the SNB which has kept a negative rate simply to do “just a bit more than the ECB”, the Bank of Japan (BOJ) seems determined to anchor its 10-year JGB yield in a bid to stimulate growth – despite the pressures inflationists. This has really pushed the yen crosses towards the highs we are currently testing. That said, the ECB has seen the assumptions settle for the euro and regional benchmarks. Until the end of the year, the swaps incorporate a reference rate of 0.68, which represents an aggressive reversal from the main rate of -0.50% currently supported. If this group decides to withdraw from its implacable lodging, this has important implications for the value of the euro; but beware, its influence is broader on global “risk trends”.

    Chart of benchmark lending rates of major central banks (monthly)

    S&P 500 or EURUSD: which will break first?

    Chart created by John Kicklighter

    When will we recognize the recession in the room?

    I had misread the calendar this week. I had mixed the releases of the World Bank and OECD growth forecasts and therefore was unprepared for the latter’s update in the last session. Ultimately, the data matched the issues we saw in other statistical venues. For global growth, the OECD has lowered its “global” forecast from 4.5% in 2022 to 3.0%. That’s a steep drop, but not particularly surprising. We’ve seen the potential for economic expansion gradually slide from the IMF’s spring forecast to the Markit PMIs to the data we’ve seen this week. Nonetheless, the pressure remains…and the deviation from where the major risk indices are floating is worth watching. The next high-level US economic forecast will be released next week along with the FOMC’s Summary of Economic Projections (SEP) update accompanying its rate decision.

    Table of OECD economic forecasts

    S&P 500 or EURUSD: which will break first?

    OECD forecasts and table

    The threat of an economic recession is serious…but the market has a way of downplaying the threat until it is undeniable. When it comes to a reversal in growth, it is a fundamental “end” to so many of the “means” that we debate from week to week. I conducted a survey to see what the average trader (on Twitter) thought was the likelihood of a recession for a “major” economy in the coming year. Probability categories of 50-75 and 75-100% were evenly distributed. Ultimately, risk trends are the end game when it comes to global markets and trend development, but economic activity and potential is what I see as a dominant driver. We would do well to watch for important data and critical forecasts like the FOMC SEP going forward.

    Poll asking the probability of a recession for a “major” economy

    S&P 500 or EURUSD: which will break first?

    Table from twitter.com, @JohnKicklighter

    element inside the element. That’s probably not what you wanted to do! Upload your application’s JavaScript bundle to the item instead.

    ]]>
    Draft order would have given armed Trump supporters power to seize voting data – Mother Jones https://it-talk.org/draft-order-would-have-given-armed-trump-supporters-power-to-seize-voting-data-mother-jones/ Sat, 04 Jun 2022 09:44:19 +0000 https://it-talk.org/draft-order-would-have-given-armed-trump-supporters-power-to-seize-voting-data-mother-jones/ Donald Trump arrives at a rally on January 06, 2021.Tasos Katopodis/Getty Facts matter: Join for free Mother Jones Daily newsletter. Support our nonprofit reports. Subscribe to our print magazine. As MAGA-world rushed in November 2020 to concoct claims that the presidential election had been stolen, a business associate of Mike Lindell – the exec of […]]]>

    Donald Trump arrives at a rally on January 06, 2021.Tasos Katopodis/Getty

    Facts matter: Join for free Mother Jones Daily newsletter. Support our nonprofit reports. Subscribe to our print magazine.

    As MAGA-world rushed in November 2020 to concoct claims that the presidential election had been stolen, a business associate of Mike Lindell – the exec of My Pillow promoting outlandish conspiracy theories – circulated a particularly extreme proposition : a draft executive order it would have allowed armed Trump supporters to seize voting data and investigate alleged “voter tampering.”

    The proposal identified three people who would be granted this power. Two were associates of former national security adviser Michael Flynn: retired Colonel Philip Waldron and Texas businessman Russell Ramsland. Waldron and Ramsland at the time worked closely with Flynn and attorney Sidney Powell to promote the unsubstantiated and zany claim that the Chinese Communist Party, in cahoots with billionaire George Soros and an array of others actors around the world, had rigged the American vote. machines to throw the presidency to Joe Biden.

    It is unclear how far this proposal went; Trump never implemented it. But it’s an indicator of just how bizarre the effort to overturn the election was. The draft executive order was shared among a group of Trump supporters organized by Powell, who were concocting conspiracy theories and developing implausible legal strategies to keep Trump in power. In a now infamous December 16, 2020 meeting in the Oval Office, Powell and Flynn allegedly press Trump to issue an executive order authorizing the military or a civilian agency to seize voting machines. Public reports noted this Ramsland and Waldron helped formulate this proposal. But the idea may have drawn at least from the separate draft executive order circulated by Andrew Whitney, Lindell’s partner.

    Whitney, a British pharmaceutical entrepreneur, had recently won a few notoriety by encouraging Trump to adopt an oleander treatment that Whitney says could “cure” Covid in two days.

    The draft executive order includes space in square brackets for “language to convey the authority of the office of the President of the United States of America.” Then it says, “Due to compelling evidence of election tampering,” three individuals and their companies allegedly have the power to “actively seek, physically obtain and/or remotely retrieve, and maintain in a storage site data protected by a third party all data and/or or code relating to U.S. voter fraud, voter manipulation, voter fraud, voter interference, voter eligibility, and election systems wherever they reside.

    “These individuals,” the order adds, “will be permitted to be armed while conducting these investigations, as most operations would be conducted under hostile conditions.” It also says that US Marshals or other law enforcement “will be seconded to teams sent into the field” to enter data.

    Two of the three figures the order is said to have tasked with carrying out this plan have since become well known for their post-election machinations. Waldron, who runs Rising Tide Services LLC, created an infamous PowerPoint presentation that urged Trump to declare a national emergency in order to stay in office. Waldron has said he spoke to White House chief of staff Mark Meadows “eight to 10 times.” Ramsland ran a company called Allied Security Operations, which claims to offer customers a combination of cybersecurity and physical security services and which, according to Ramsland, search provided to Powell and Trump attorney Rudy Giuliani. Neither Waldron nor Ramsland responded to requests for comment.

    The third person named in the draft order said Mother Jones that he had nothing to do with this proposal and that he was unaware of its existence and that he was not involved in the efforts to annul the election.

    The draft was sent from a ProtonMail address that belongs to Whitney, according to people who corresponded with him. It is unknown if Whitney actually wrote it. He did not respond to inquiries. The document was sent to Jim Penrose, whose online biography says he worked for the National Security Agency and worked closely with Flynn at the time. It was also sent to Doug Logan, the head of a cybersecurity firm, Cyber ​​Ninjas, who was later implicated in a so-called audit of election results in Arizona.

    Whitney, Penrose and Logan were among a group of Trump supporters who met in mid-November 2020 at a property bought earlier that year by Lin Wood, a prominent trial attorney who has embraced pro-Trump conspiracy theories, including QAnon. Led by Powell, the group, which also included Flynn and Overstock founder Patrick Byrne, used the estate – called Tomotley Plantation – to organize legal efforts to keep Trump in power.

    It’s unclear who else, if anyone, ultimately saw the commissioned draft that Whitney sent to Penrose and Logan. But the email, according to the sources involved, was the first part of a process in which many people working with Powell, including Wood’s property group, in workshop sweeping proposals that eventually reached Trump, in modified form. “Almost everyone in Sidney’s orbit was involved in writing some of this stuff,” said a person involved in the effort.

    Various media have reported Disorganized Executive orders linked to efforts to encourage Trump to attempt to seize voting machines. A proposal would have would have used the Department of Homeland Security, not the Pentagon; Asset, according the New York Times, was open to the idea. But other Trump advisers, including White House attorney Pat Cippolone and even Giuliani, would have blocked him. The former mayor of New York famous said “we would all end up in jail” if Trump signed an order authorizing the military to confiscate the machines.

    Wood, who has since turned against most of his former guests, claimed in an interview that Whitney came to his property the second week of November 2020 not to participate in the crusade against voter fraud, but to promote oleandrin , his supposed Covid remedy. The Washington Post reported last year, Whitney secured support for this product from HUD Secretary Ben Carson and Lindell and was able to secure a White House meeting about it with Trump in July 2020. Lindell, who, according Axios, invested in a company developing the drug, later claimed that Trump said at the meeting that “the FDA should approve” the product. (This doesn’t.)

    Whitney had previously introduced oleandrin to a series of conservative pundits. John Solomon, the former right-winger Hill columnist who helped Giuliani pushing false allegations about Joe Biden and Ukraine in 2019, gave the product a swollen handwriting. Whitney too peddled on the pro-Trump live streamer show Diamond and Silk.

    But in November 2020, Whitney found a new purpose. In a four page note which he sent to Wood on November 18, titled “Their Plan Revealed”, Whitney speculated that the left, which he called “the Communists”, would use violence and possible collaboration with “armed foreign elements of “China, Venezuela and Cuba”. to retain power in the United States. He also predicted they would stage a stock market crash, “a second pandemic” or a power grid outage to distract from Trump’s efforts to expose voter fraud. To stop this, Whitney urged Trump to take a series of executive actions, including pardoning WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, declassifying “all Russiagate documents,” and ordering “immediate arrests of violent activists, facilitators (BLM, ANTIFA, others)”.

    “Can we pass this on to Sidney, and to General Flynn, or to POTUS directly?” Whitney asked Wood in an email.

    Wood told me he didn’t think he complied. “I doubt I did anything with it, including bother to read it,” Wood said.

    ]]>
    Longtime Facebook Executive #2 Sheryl Sandberg Steps Down | Technology https://it-talk.org/longtime-facebook-executive-2-sheryl-sandberg-steps-down-technology/ Thu, 02 Jun 2022 03:18:07 +0000 https://it-talk.org/longtime-facebook-executive-2-sheryl-sandberg-steps-down-technology/ By BARBARA ORTUTAY and MICHAEL LIEDTKE – AP Technology Writers SAN FRANCISCO (AP) — Sheryl Sandberg, the second exec of Facebook owner Meta, who helped turn her startup business into a digital advertising empire while taking responsibility for some of her biggest missteps along the way , withdraws. Sandberg served as chief operating officer at […]]]>

    By BARBARA ORTUTAY and MICHAEL LIEDTKE – AP Technology Writers

    SAN FRANCISCO (AP) — Sheryl Sandberg, the second exec of Facebook owner Meta, who helped turn her startup business into a digital advertising empire while taking responsibility for some of her biggest missteps along the way , withdraws.

    Sandberg served as chief operating officer at the social media giant for 14 years. She joined Google in 2008, four years before Facebook went public.

    “When I accepted this position in 2008, I hoped to hold this position for five years. Fourteen years later, it’s time for me to write the next chapter of my life,” Sandberg wrote Wednesday on his Facebook page.

    Sandberg ran Facebook’s advertising business – now Meta – and was responsible for growing it from its inception into a more than $100 billion-a-year powerhouse. As the company’s second most recognized face – after CEO Mark Zuckerberg – Sandberg has also become a polarizing figure amid revelations about how some of her business decisions for Facebook helped spread misinformation and hate speech.

    People also read…

    • Update: ‘Catastrophic scene’ inside south Tulsa medical building where five people died in mass shooting
    • Surplus land to be auctioned off next month by Oklahoma Turnpike Authority: ‘A great opportunity’
    • Bill Haisten: Prep football shocker – Jenks QB Shaker Reisig moves to Union
    • Update: Five dead, including a shooter, in a medical building near Saint Francis Hospital
    • Watch live from inside the courtroom: The Depp/Heard trial verdict
    • Woman pulls out gun, kills man shooting into crowd with AR-15 rifle, police say
    • ‘Bullets were literally flying everywhere’: Witnesses describe shooting in Taft that left 1 dead and 7 injured
    • ‘A watershed moment’: Baptists release names of accused abusers, including some from Tulsa area
    • Seven Oklahoma schools must add days to 2022-23 school calendars after state school board denies waivers
    • Kirk Fridrich, Emily Barkley: QB Jenks’ arrival complies with Union move-in rules
    • After 17 seasons, Clay Martin resigns from Jenks’ basketball job
    • DNA points to longtime prime suspect in 1977 Girl Scout murders, sheriff says
    • Woman killed in Taft shooting identified; suspect remains in jail
    • A $51 million development in Tulsa’s arts district would turn a parking lot into a hotel and apartments
    • GRDA police: Man drowns in Flint Creek

    As one of the most prominent female executives in the tech industry, she’s also often been criticized for not doing enough for both women and others harmed by Facebook’s products. His expertise in public speaking, his seemingly effortless ability to bridge the worlds of technology, business and politics stood in stark contrast to Zuckerberg, especially in Facebook’s early years. But Zuckerberg has since caught up, trained in part for the several congressional hearings in which he was called to testify in defense of Facebook’s practices.

    Neither Sandberg nor Zuckerberg gave any indication that Sandberg’s resignation was not his decision. But she has also appeared somewhat sidelined in recent years, other executives close to Zuckerberg, such as Chris Cox – who returned in 2020 as Chief Product Officer after a year-long hiatus from the company – have become more important.

    “Sheryl Sandberg has had a huge impact on Facebook, Meta, and the broader business world. She has helped Facebook build a world-class ad buying platform and develop breakthrough ad formats,” Debra said. Insider Intelligence analyst Aho Williamson, the 2018 Cambridge Analytica debacle and the 2021 riot at the United States Capitol.

    And now Meta is “facing a slowdown in user growth and ad revenue that is now testing the business foundation on which the company was built,” she said. “The company needs to find a new way forward, and perhaps now was the best time for Sandberg to leave.”

    Sandberg is leaving Meta in the fall and will continue to serve on the company’s board.

    Zuckerberg said in his own Facebook post that Javier Olivan, who currently oversees key functions for Meta’s four core apps — Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp and Messenger — will serve as Meta’s new COO. But it will be a different job than the one Sandberg has had for the past 14 years.

    “This will be a more traditional COO role where Javi will focus internally and operationally, building on his strong track record to make our execution more efficient and rigorous,” Zuckerberg wrote.

    While Sandberg has long been Zuckerberg’s No. 2, even sitting next to him — before the pandemic, at least — at the company’s headquarters in Menlo Park, Calif., she also had a job that was very public, meeting with legislators, hosting focus groups and speaking out on issues such as working women and, more recently, abortion.

    “I think Meta has reached the point where it makes sense for our product and business groups to be more tightly integrated, rather than having all business and operational functions organized separately from our products,” Zuckerberg wrote.

    Sandberg, who suddenly lost her husband Dave Goldberg in 2015, said she was “not entirely sure what the future holds”.

    “But I know it will include focusing more on my foundation and philanthropic work, which is more important than ever to me given how critical this time is for women,” she wrote, adding that she is also getting married this summer and that parenting their extended family of five children will also be part of that future.

    Sandberg, now 52, ​​first helped Google build what quickly became the largest and most lucrative advertising network on the Internet. But she left that role to take on the challenge of turning Facebook’s freewheeling social network into a lucrative business while helping mentor Zuckerberg, who was 23 from 38 at the time.

    She proved to be just what the then immature Zuckerberg and company needed at the right time, helping pave the way for Facebook’s highly anticipated IPO a decade ago.

    While Zuckerberg remained the visionary and controlling shareholder of Facebook, Sandberg became the driving force behind a business fueled by a rapidly growing digital advertising business that has become almost as successful as the one she helped reconcile around the world. Google’s dominant search engine.

    Much like Google’s advertising empire, Facebook’s business has thrived on its ability to keep users coming back for more of its free service while leveraging its social networking services to learn more about people’s interests, habits and location – a curious pattern that has repeatedly entangled the company in debates over whether a right to privacy still exists in the increasingly digital age .

    As one of the top female executives in tech, Sandberg has sometimes been seen as an inspiration to working women — a role she seemed to embrace with a 2013 bestselling book titled ” Lean In: Women, Work and the Will”. Carry out.”

    But “Lean In” received immediate criticism. New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd called Sandberg “a PowerPoint Pied Piper in Prada ankle boots,” and critics suggested she was the wrong person to lead a women’s movement.

    She addressed some of these criticisms in a later book about the death of her husband, Dave Goldberg. In 2015, she became a symbol of heartbreaking grief when Goldberg died in an accident while working on vacation, the widow with two children as she continued to help run one of the world’s best-known companies. in the world.

    In recent years, Sandberg has become a polarizing figure amid revelations about how some of his business decisions for Facebook helped spread misinformation and hate speech. Critics and a company whistleblower say the aftermath has undermined democracy and caused serious emotional problems for teenagers, especially girls.

    “The Age of Surveillance Capitalism” author Shoshana Zuboff says Sandberg is as responsible as anyone for what Zuboff considers one of Big Tech’s most insidious inventions: the collection and organization of data. on the behavior and preferences of social media users. For years, Facebook shared user data not only with advertisers, but also with business partners.

    Sandberg did this, Zuboff wrote, “through the shrewd manipulation of Facebook’s culture of intimacy and sharing.”

    Zuboff calls Sandberg the “Typhoid Mary” of surveillance capitalism, the term for profiting from collecting data about online behavior, preferences, shared data and social media user relationships.

    “Sheryl Sandberg may think she’s a feminist, but her decisions at Meta have made social media platforms less safe for women, people of color, and even threatened America’s electoral system. Sandberg has had the power to act for fourteen years , but always chose not to,” said Shaunna Thomas, co-founder of UltraViolet, a gender justice advocacy organization that has called for Sandberg’s resignation, in an emailed comment. Wednesday.

    Sandberg has made public missteps at the company, including his attempt to deflect blame from Facebook for the January 6, 2021, uprising at the United States Capitol. In an interview later that month that was carried by Reuters, she said she believed the day’s events were “largely staged on platforms that lack our abilities to stop hate, don’t have our standards and don’t have our transparency.”

    Internal documents revealed by whistleblower Frances Haugen later that year, however, showed that Facebook’s own employees were concerned about the company’s wavering and often reversed response to rising extremism. United States which culminated with the events of January 6.

    “Haven’t we had enough time to figure out how to manage the discourse without allowing violence? an employee wrote on an internal message board at the height of the January 6 turmoil. “We’ve been stoking this fire for a long time and shouldn’t be surprised it’s now out of control.”

    AP Technology Writer Frank Bajak in Boston contributed to this story.

    Copyright 2022 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

    ]]>
    Coins that could make you a millionaire in 2023 https://it-talk.org/coins-that-could-make-you-a-millionaire-in-2023/ Sat, 28 May 2022 12:07:00 +0000 https://it-talk.org/coins-that-could-make-you-a-millionaire-in-2023/ Disclaimer: The text below is a publicity article that was not written by Cryptonews.com reporters. Cryptocurrencies are all the rage these days. Everyone is talking about Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH and Ripple (XRP). While they certainly deserve your attention, there are several other cryptocurrencies that could make you a millionaire in 2023. Log Finance (LOG), […]]]>

    Disclaimer: The text below is a publicity article that was not written by Cryptonews.com reporters.

    Cryptocurrencies are all the rage these days. Everyone is talking about Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH and Ripple (XRP). While they certainly deserve your attention, there are several other cryptocurrencies that could make you a millionaire in 2023. Log Finance (LOG), Avalanche (AVAX)and Chain link (LINK) are three such pieces. Keep reading to find out why!

    Logarithmic Finance (LOG): A new coin that can make you richer

    Log Finance (LOG) is one of the most recent projects developed in decentralized finance (DeFi) and has managed to attract the attention of many investors thanks to its potential. With its technology and infrastructure, LOG, which faces high demand during the pre-sale process, has the potential to provide the necessary speed and low cost in the field of exchange.

    Logarithmic Finance (LOG) is a project that uses Layer-III exchange technology. LOG, which aims to provide ease of use to its developers and investors by keeping user experience at the forefront, also uses one of the most advanced encryption technologies. In the project, which aims to completely secure transactions, an encryption technology called homomorphic encryption is used. This technology, which encrypts and decrypts data packets in the background, emphasizes security and ensures transactions are completed quickly.

    LOG is created to take as minimalistic an approach as possible when doing exchange transactions. Thanks to the unique optimization performed in the code architecture of the project, the gas costs of transactions are reduced by 80%. Low-cost operations, which are another reason the project is attracting attention, set Logarithmic Finance (LOG) apart from its alternatives.

    DeFi systems are likely to be used more frequently in the future, where LOG can provide cheap, secure, and fast cross-chain exchanges and therefore has the potential to fill in the gaps. ]Log Finance (LOG)preferred by investors who wish to make medium and long term investments, could offer an instant investment opportunity that can be profitable.

    Avalanche (AVAX): one of the fastest networks on the market

    Avalanche (AVAX) is a cryptocurrency that presents itself as the fastest network on the market. Its main objective is to provide a platform for fast and easy transactions with minimal fees. The Avalanche network claims to handle up to 10,000 transactions per second with low prices. In terms of market value, Avalanche (AVAX) was ranked the 13th largest cryptocurrency in May 2022, with a market capitalization of around $8.4 billion. Although its price has fluctuated somewhat over the past year, it generally tends to increase and its popularity seems to be on the rise. Given its speed and low cost, Avalanche (AVAX) seems to have great potential as a cryptocurrency, and its market value should continue to grow in the future.

    Chainlink (LINK): Another investment option for 2023

    Chain link (LINK) is a decentralized oracle network which provides data to smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It is used to connect Ethereum (ETH) smart contracts with off-chain resources like data feeds, web APIs, and traditional bank payments. In other words, it allows smart contracts to interact with real-world data. Chainlink was launched in June 2017 and has a market value of USD 3.4 billion as of May 2022.

    The main advantage of Chainlink is its decentralization. Oracle services are delivered through a network of independent nodes, reducing the risk of data manipulation and fraud. This makes Chainlink (LINK) an attractive option for developers who want to build reliable decentralized applications. Additionally, LINK is one of the few cryptocurrency tokens backed by real-world usage. With more dApps being built on Ethereum, the demand for Chainlink’s services will likely increase in the coming years. This makes Chain link (LINK) a potentially valuable investment for those looking to diversify their portfolio in 2021.

    If you are looking for a new investment to make in the years to come, Log Finance (LOG) could be a great option. The growth potential is high and it looks like a solid play with a good team behind it.

    For more information see the links below.

    Presale: https://presale.logarithmic.finance/register

    Website: https://logarithmic.finance/

    Telegram: https://t.me/LOGARITHMIC_FINANCE_OFFICIAL

    ]]>